Pressurizers Types

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Pressurizers Types
There are two types of pressurizers: static and dynamic. A static pressurizer is a partially filled tank with a required amount of gas pressure trapped in the void area. A dynamic pressurizer is a tank in which its saturated environment is controlled through use of heaters (to control temperature) and sprays (to control pressure).

The evaporation process is one in which a liquid is converted into a vapor at temperatures below the boiling point. All the molecules in the liquid are continuously in motion. The molecules that move most quickly possess the greatest amount of energy. This energy occasionally escapes from the surface of the liquid and moves into the atmosphere. When molecules move into the atmosphere, the molecules are in the gaseous, or vapor, state.

Liquids at a high temperature have more molecules escaping to the vapor state, because the molecules can escape only at higher speeds. If the liquid is in a closed container, the space above the liquid becomes saturated with vapor molecules, although some of the molecules return to the liquid state as they slow down. The return of a vapor to a liquid state is called condensation. When the amount of molecules that condense is equal to the amount of molecules
that evaporate, there is a dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and the vapor.

Pressure exerted on the surface of a liquid by a vapor is called vapor pressure. Vapor pressure increases with the temperature of the liquid until it reaches saturation pressure, at which time the liquid boils. When a liquid evaporates, it loses its most energetic molecules, and the average energy per molecule in the system is lowered. This causes a reduction in the temperature of the liquid.

Boiling is the activity observed in a liquid when it changes from the liquid phase to the vapor phase through the addition of heat. The term saturated liquid is used for a liquid that exists at its boiling point. Water at 212o F and standard atmospheric pressure is an example of a saturated liquid.

Saturated steam is steam at the same temperature and pressure as the water from which it was formed. It is water, in the form of a saturated liquid, to which the latent heat of vaporization has been added. When heat is added to a saturated steam that is not in contact with liquid, its temperature is increased and the steam is superheated. The temperature of superheated steam, expressed as degrees above saturation, is called degrees of superheat.